This was a source of lead-related health problems in the years before the health hazards of ingesting lead were fully understood; among these were stillbirths and high rates of infant mortality.
Lead water pipes were still widely used in the early 20th century, and remain in many households.
Unlike other parts of the world where lead pipes cause poisoning, the Roman water had so much calcium in it that a layer of plaque prevented the water contacting the lead itself.
What often causes confusion is the large amount of evidence of widespread lead poisoning, particularly amongst those who would have had easy access to piped water.
This was an unfortunate result of lead being used in cookware and as an additive to processed food and drink, for example as a preservative in wine.Roman lead pipe inscriptions provided information on the owner to prevent water theft. Wooden pipes were used in London and elsewhere during the 16th and 17th centuries.
About 100,000 feet of these wooden pipes were installed during WW2 in drainage culverts, storm sewers and conduits, under highways and at army camps, naval stations, airfields and ordnance plants. Cast iron and ductile iron pipe was long a lower-cost alternative to copper, before the advent of durable plastic materials but special non-conductive fittings must be used where transitions are to be made to other metallic pipes, except for terminal fittings, in order to avoid corrosion owing to electrochemical reactions between dissimilar metals (see galvanic cell).Źródło: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Water_pipe
To define and secure boilers safely, some professional specialized organizations such as the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) develop standards and regulation codes. For instance, the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code is a standard providing a wide range of rules and directives to ensure compliance of the boilers and other pressure vessels with safety, security and design standards.5 Historically, boilers were a source of many serious injuries and property destruction due to poorly understood engineering principles. Thin and brittle metal shells can rupture, while poorly welded or riveted seams could open up, leading to a violent eruption of the pressurized steam.When water is converted to steam it expands to over 1,000 times its original volume and travels down steam pipes at over 100 kilometres per hour.Because of this, steam is a great way of moving energy and heat around a site from a central boiler house to where it is needed, but without the right boiler feed water treatment, a steam-raising plant will suffer from scale formation and corrosion.At best, this increases energy costs and can lead to poor quality steam, reduced efficiency, shorter plant life and unreliable operation.
At worst, it can lead to catastrophic failure and loss of life.Collapsed or dislodged boiler tubes can also spray scalding-hot steam and smoke out of the air intake and firing chute, injuring the firemen who load the coal into the fire chamber.Extremely large boilers providing hundreds of horsepower to operate factories can potentially demolish entire buildings. Źródło: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Boiler#Safety